The terms of reference did not specify the underlying purpose of the inquiry – to prevent a repetition, to allocate blame, to apportion liability or culpability, or to establish what precisely had happened. Design disaster . But when the train came near to Wormit Bay,Boreas he did loud and angry bray,And shook the central girders of the Bridge of TayOn the last Sabbath day of 1879,Which will be remember’d for a very long time. The first Tay Rail Bridge collapsed while a train was passing over it from Wormit to Dundee, killing all aboard. [135] Forming a mould around the defective lug, heating that end of the column, and adding molten metal to fill the mould and – hopefully – adequately fuse with the rest of the column. When it came to be known a whale was seen in the Tay,Some men began to talk and to say,We must try and catch this monster of a whale,So come on, brave boys, and never say fail. "The Tay Bridge Disaster" is a poem written in 1880 by the Scottish poet William McGonagall, who has been recognized as the worst poet in history. The superstructure of the piers is ordinary everyday work". The Court of Inquiry produced its final report in six months, and condemned the structure for its design and materials defects. (To give a subsequent, well documented example, in 1903 a stationary train was overturned on the Levens viaduct but this was by a 'terrific gale' measured at Barrow in Furness to have an average velocity of 100 miles per hour (160 km/h), estimated to be gusting up to 120 miles per hour (190 km/h). It describes the moment of the disaster as:[170]. McKean goes on to comment on the failure of the Railway Inspectorate to comment on the hazards of hitting cast iron hard. 15th August 2016. [note 21] After the accident Stewart had assisted William Pole[note 22] in calculating what the bridge should have withstood. The bedrock lay much deeper than the trial borings had shown, and Bouch had to redesign the bridge, with fewer piers and correspondingly longer span girders. Whilst checking the pier foundations to see if the river bed was being scoured from around them, Noble had become aware that some diagonal tie bars were 'chattering',[note 11] and in October 1878 had begun remedying this. [37], Painters who had worked on the bridge in mid-1879 said that it shook when a train was on it. He doubted Rankine's pressures because he was not an experimentalist; told that the data were observations by the Regius Professor of Astronomy at Glasgow University [note 28]he doubted that the Professor had the equipment to take the readings. The Tay Bridge Disaster Dundee.1879. Bouch said if he had known the holes were cast conical he would have had them bored or reamed. [16] At that point "there was a sudden bright flash of light, and in an instant there was total darkness, the tail lamps of the train, the sparks and the flash of light all ... disappearing at the same instant. Both ties[80] and lugs were weakened by high local stresses where the bolt bore on them. The chapter notes are almost more interesting than the book. Had they been supported on each side with buttresses. 398–408 (Sir Thomas Bouch), Mins of Ev p. 392 (Robert Henry Scott, MA FRS, Secretary to the Meteorological Council), Drawing "Correct Arrangement of 4.15 P.M. [90] [168][169] It was published only ten days after the tragedy happened. Work started 6 July 1883 and the bridge opened on 13 July 1887. It remains … All the oral evidence given, reproduced verbatim –. it was a most fearful and beautiful sight,To see it lashing the water with its tail all its might,And making the water ascend like a shower of hail,With one lash of its ugly and mighty tail. https://www.scottishpoetrylibrary.org.uk/poem/tay-bridge-disaster Paterson was also the engineer of the Perth General Station. [148]), A new double-track Tay Bridge was built by the NBR, designed by Barlow and built by William Arrol & Co. of Glasgow 18 metres (59 ft) upstream of, and parallel to, the original bridge. … Nov 05, 2014 Richard Thomas rated it it was amazing. By 3 January 1880, they were taking evidence in Dundee; they then appointed Henry Law (a qualified civil engineer) to undertake detailed investigations. Rothery agreed, asking "Can there be any doubt that what caused the overthrow of the bridge was the pressure of the wind acting upon a structure badly built and badly maintained? The gradient onto the bridge at the northern end prevented similar high speeds on south-bound locals. [11] One modern interpretation of available information suggests winds were gusting to 80 mph (129 km/h; 36 m/s).[12]. [125] The tender coupling (which clearly could not have hit a girder) had also been found in the bottom boom of the eastern girder. One light on each of the 14 piers in or bordering the navigable channel, of which he had been able to see seven. Evidence was taken from scientists on the current state of knowledge on wind loading and from engineers on the allowance they made for it. The train into the girders came, And down went the train and passengers into the Tay! Incompetent engineering and atrocious weather led to the deaths of an estimated 75 people in the 1879 tragedy. "The cotters are really wedges, and to prevent those wedges from shaking backwards their ends are split, and they are bent in that position in order to prevent them shifting up". How the disaster happen’d on the last Sabbath day of 1879. Law had seen no evidence of burnt-on lugs. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}56°26′14.4″N 2°59′18.4″W / 56.437333°N 2.988444°W / 56.437333; -2.988444, For William McGonagall's poem on this subject, see, Salvage operations underway in the Firth of Tay and dockside, How the bridge was used – speed of trains and oscillation of bridge, How the bridge was maintained – chattering ties and cracked columns, How the bridge was built – the Wormit foundry, How the bridge was built – management and inspection, Modelling of bridge failure and conclusions drawn, Law: causes were windloading, poor design and poor quality control, Pole: causes were windloading and impact of derailed carriages, Presentational differences between reports, Wind Pressure (Railway Structures) Commission. By fitting an additional packing piece between loose cotters and driving the cotters in, Noble had re-tightened loose ties and stopped them chattering. At some piers, base column sections were still standing; at others, base sections had fallen to the west. There are sufficient pieces here to show that these flaws were very extensive. The wind pressures reported at Bidston were probably anomalously high because of peculiarities of the site (one of the highest points on the Wirral. [note 23] On the authority of Stewart they had assumed that the bridge was designed against a wind loading of twenty pounds per square foot (0.96 kPa) 'with the usual margin of safety'. Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec -5% de réduction . [167] The German poet Theodor Fontane, shocked by the news, wrote his poem Die Brück' am Tay. On 28 December 1879 the High Girders were blown into the Tay while a train was passing through them, drowning 75 people. A Board of Trade inspection was conducted over three days of good weather in February 1878; the bridge was passed for use by passenger traffic, subject to a 25 mph (40 km/h) speed limit. Écoutez plus de 60 millions de titres avec votre abonnement illimité. [115] (Bouch's own view that collision damage to the girder was the sole cause of bridge collapse[116] found little support). The Tay Bridge Disaster as the incident is popularly known , was one of the worst structure failures of the time both in terms of the size and significance of the structure and also was one of the biggest disasters as it took lives of 75 people. [17] It has been suggested that there were no unknown victims and that the higher figure of 75 arises from double-counting in an early newspaper report,[22] but the inquiry did not take its casualty figures from the Dundee Courier; it took sworn evidence and did its own sums. It does not do to speculate upon whether it is a fair estimate or not". the Tay Bridge is blown down. Railway accidents and incidents in the United Kingdom, 1815–1899, List of atmospheric pressure records in Europe, Dundee, Broughty Ferry and District Tramways, List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Angus and Dundee, Duncan of Jordanstone College of Art and Design, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tay_Bridge_disaster&oldid=999169286, Railway accidents and incidents in Scotland, Bridge disasters caused by engineering error, Bridge disasters caused by construction error, Accidents and incidents involving North British Railway, Articles with dead external links from October 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with incomplete citations from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The column bodies were of uneven wall thickness, as much as. [note 17]. [149][150]): a wind pressure of 30–40 psf (1.4–1.9 kPa) would overturn railway carriages and such events were a rarity. Wrought iron horizontal braces and diagonal tiebars linked the columns in each pier to provide rigidity and stability. So they resolved to tow it ashore without fail. The Tay Bridge disaster occurred on Sunday 28th December 1879, resulting in the loss of life of approximately 75 people travelling on the train. Gilkes were in some financial difficulty; they ceased trading in 1880, but had begun liquidation in May 1879, before the disaster. C. Horne's ballad In Memory of the Tay Bridge Disaster was published as a broadside in May 1880. Includes a large number of drawings of the bridge, and calculations of the result of wind pressure on the structure, Report from the Select Committee on the North British Railway (Tay Bridge) Bill; together with the Proceedings of the Committee and Mins of Ev. The bolt holes for the lugs were cast with a taper; consequently the bolt-lug contact was by the bolt thread bearing against a knife edge at the outer end of the hole. [159][160][161][162] The stumps of the original bridge piers are still visible above the surface of the Tay. [91] The highest pressure measured at Greenwich was 50 psf (2.4 kPa); it would probably go higher in Scotland. [7] Witnesses said the storm was as bad as any they had seen in the 20–30 years they had lived in the area;[8][9] one called it a 'hurricane', as bad as a typhoon he had seen in the China Sea. ... “an internationally recognised brand” would include 120-150 guest rooms over four storeys with views of the River Tay. The Board of Trade set up a 5-man commission (Barlow, Yolland, Sir John Hawkshaw, Sir William Armstrong and Stokes) to consider what wind loading should be assumed when designing railway bridges. The alarm from mouth to mouth was blown, And the cry rang out all o'er the town, Good heavens! Tests in 1880 over a period of 36 hours using both dead and rolling loads led to the structure becoming seriously distorted and eight of the piers were declared unsafe. [38][note 10] When a train entered the southern high girders the bridge had shaken at the north end, both east–west and, more strongly, up-and-down. [135] Rothery felt that previous straining was "partly by previous gales, partly by the great speed at which trains going north were permitted to run through the high girders":[134] if the momentum of a train at 25 miles per hour (40 km/h) hitting girders could cause the fall of the bridge, what must have been the cumulative effect of the repeated braking of trains from 40 miles per hour (64 km/h) at the north end of the bridge? Bouch died less than a year after the disaster, his reputation ruined. The left front of the recovered locomotive tender, Right side of the recovered locomotive tender, Two wagons holding wreckage salvaged from the train, Opposite view of previous view showing two wagons holding salvaged wreckage, Fallen girders with remains of a wooden train carriage. The bridge had cost £670,000, or about £62 10s. [152], Bouch had also been engineer for the North British, Arbroath and Montrose Railway, which included an iron viaduct over the South Esk. The Inquiry felt that these locations were significantly more sheltered, and therefore rejected this argument. Good Heavens! It happened during a violent storm on 28 December 1879. The train is gone, its living freight It is just after 7.00 pm on 28 th December 1879. Marks on the south end of the southernmost high girder indicated that it had moved bodily eastwards for about 20 inches (510 mm) across the pier before falling to the north. it was a most fearful and beautiful sight. This monument was unveiled on 28th December 2013 to commemorate the rail disaster some 134 years earlier on that fateful night when 59 people died in the Tay Rail Disaster. In 1879 the Tay Bridge was the longest bridge in the world, spanning two miles across the Tay estuary in southeastern Scotland. Rail bridge wall collapse closes line near crash scene. Evidence was then given of flange marks on tie bars in the fifth girder (north of the two rearmost carriages), the 'collision with girders' theory being duly modified to everything behind the tender having derailed. The Tay Bridge Disaster And The World’s Worst Poem. The bridge—designed by Sir Thomas Bouch—used lattice girders supported by iron piers, with cast iron columns and wrought iron cross-bracing. ", "Courier article to blame for Tay Bridge Disaster death toll confusion, says researcher", "William Robertson – Engineer – (13 August 1825 – 11 July 1899)", "Don't Look Down – the story of Belah viaduct", "Iron Founding—Uniting Cast Iron by 'Burning-On, "On the evolution in design and calculation of steel structures over the 19th century in Belgium, France and England", "Tay Bridge Disaster: Report of the Court of Inquiry and Report of Mr Rothery", "An Experimental Enquiry concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to Turn Mills, and Other Machines, Depending on a Circular Motion", "The main text of the Commission's report can be found at", "Natural Areas and Greenspaces: Bidston Hill", "The Wirral Hundred/The Wirral Peninsula", "Railway Viaducts over South Esk River  (Category B Listed Building) (LB49864)", "Discussion: Wind-Pressures, and Stresses Caused by the Wind on Bridges", "BBC, Memorials for those killed in Tay Bridge disaster", "Anniversary walk to commemorate Tay Bridge Disaster taking place this weekend", "OU on the BBC: Forensic Engineering – The Tay Bridge Disaster", "Forensic engineering: a reappraisal of the Tay Bridge disaster", "Broadside ballad entitled 'In Memory of the Tay Bridge Disaster, Tay Bridge Disaster: Report Of The Court of Inquiry, and Report Of Mr. Rothery, Upon the Circumstances Attending the Fall of a Portion of the Tay Bridge on the 28th December 1879, Tom Martin's engineering analysis of the bridge disaster, Dundee local history centre page on the disaster, Find a grave memorial of Tay River victims, Firth of Tay Bridge Disaster 1879: Worst Structural Disaster in British History, Tay Bridge Disaster: Appendix to the Report Of The Court of Inquiry. [74], Samples of the bridge materials, both cast and wrought iron, were tested by David Kirkaldy, as were a number of bolts, tiebars, and associated lugs. They had had to be broken up with dynamite before they could be recovered from the bed of the Tay (but only after an unsuccessful attempt to lift the crucial girder in one piece which had broken many girder ties). I am very sorry to say That ninety lives have been taken away On the last Sabbath day of 1879, Which will be remember’d for a very long time. [35][note 9] The Dundee stationmaster had passed Robertson's complaint about speed (he had been unaware of any concern about oscillation) on to the drivers, and then checked times from cabin to cabin (at either end of the bridge the train was travelling slowly to pick up or hand over the baton). That is to say, if the people all are willing. Yolland and Barlow concluded that the bridge had failed at the south end first; and made no explicit finding as to whether the train had hit the girders. Alas! [43] One of the painters' foremen, however, said the only motion he had seen had been north–south, and that this had been less than one-half inch (13 mm). However, over the central section of the bridge, the track ran inside the lattice-work spans. [95] Pole had ignored it because no reference was given; he did not believe any engineer paid any attention to it when designing bridges;[96] he thought 20 psf (0.96 kPa) a reasonable allowance; this was what Robert Stephenson had assumed for the Britannia Bridge. [note 14] If a casting had blowholes or other casting defects considered to be minor faults, they were filled with 'Beaumont egg'[note 15] (which the foreman kept a stock of for that purpose) and the casting was used. The Tay Bridge Disaster. Alas! J'ai déjà téléchargé Qobuz pour Mac OS Ouvrir Je n'ai pas encore téléchargé Qobuz pour Mac OS Télécharger l'app Copier le lien pour partager la page. "[143], No further judicial enquiries under Section 7 of the Regulation of Railways Act 1871 were held until the Hixon rail crash in 1968 brought into question both the policy of the Railway Inspectorate towards automated level crossings and the management by the Ministry of Transport (the Inspectorate's parent government department) of the movement of abnormal loads. So the new Tay Bridge was passed, with honours, and the triumph of the Barlows and of William Arrol, the contractor, with all their assistant engineers and workmen, was complete. Sir George Stokes agreed with Airy that 'catspaws', ripples on the water produced by gusts, could have a width of several hundred yards. It was suggested that the last two vehicles (the second-class carriage and a brake van) which appeared more damaged were those derailed, but (said Law) they were of less robust construction and the other carriages were not unscathed. Benjamin Baker said he would design to 28 psf (1.3 kPa) with a safety margin, but in 15 years of looking he had yet to see wind overthrow a structure that would withstand 20 psf (0.96 kPa). I am very sorry to sayThat ninety lives have been taken awayOn the last Sabbath day of 1879,Which will be remember’d for a very long time. 224, a 4-4-0 designed by Thomas Wheatley and built at Cowlairs Works in 1871, was salvaged and repaired, remaining in service until 1919, nicknamed "The Diver"; many superstitious drivers were reluctant to take it over the new bridge. By telling the world fearlessly without the least dismay. So I advise the people far and near to see it without fail. [56] According to his predecessor, burning-on had only been carried out on temporary 'lifting columns', which were used to allow the girders to be lifted into place and were not part of the permanent bridge structure. 88–97 (David Pirie, Peter Robertson, John Milne, Peter Donegany, David Dale, John Evans), Mins of Ev pp. The Tay Bridge cost £300,000 to build, and used 4,000 tons of cast iron, 10 million bricks and 15,000 casks of cement. ’Twas about seven o’clock at night, And the wind it blew with all its might, And the rain came pouring down, And the dark … Under the resident engineer there were seven subordinates including a foundry manager. Baker and his colleague Allan Stewart received the major credit for design and overseeing building work. On the evening of Sunday 28 December 1879, a violent storm (10 to 11 on the Beaufort scale) was blowing virtually at right angles to the bridge. Fifty-six tickets for Dundee had been collected from passengers on the train before crossing the bridge; allowing for season ticket holders, tickets for other destinations, and for railway employees, 74 or 75 people were believed to have been on the train. [121], However, (it was countered) the girders would have been damaged by their fall regardless of its cause. During a violent storm on the evening of 28 December 1879, the centre section of the bridge (known as the "High Girders") collapsed, taking with it a train which was running over its single track. [85], Bouch had designed the bridge, assisted in his calculations by Allan Stewart. The Story and the Conclusions in to the cause of the Tay Rail Bridge Disaster. He had also seen this on the previous train. Four other train passengers supported Robertson's timings but only one had noticed any movement of the bridge. A column from the bridge is on display at the Dundee Museum of Transport. Bouch's counsel called witnesses last; hence his first attempts to suggest derailment and collision were made piecemeal in cross-examination of universally unsympathetic expert witnesses. 30 psf or 1.4 kPa with the usual margin of safety). The Tay Bridge Disaster is a poem by the Scottish poet William Topaz McGonagall and recounts the events of the evening of 28 December 1879, when, during a severe gale, the Tay Rail Bridge near Dundee, Scotland collapsed as a train was passing over it with the loss of all on board. Then hurrah! Are numbered with the dead. The original foundry foreman, who had been dismissed for drunkenness, vouched for Gilkes personally testing for unevenness in the early castings: "Mr. Gilkes, sometimes once a fortnight and sometimes once a month, would tap a column with a hammer, first on one side and then on the other, and he used to go over most of them in that way sounding them. "[17] The signalman saw none of this and did not believe it when told about it. 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