Yet the prospect of There are also important engineering, economic and political advantages to starting colonization with the Moon. Enormous tracts of land were bought and sold in Kentucky for very large sums of money a hundred years before settlers arrived - for purposes of development trans-Appalacian America might as well have been Mars in the 1600's. These inventions, licensed on Earth, will raise both Terrestrial and Martian living standards and contribute large amounts of income to support the development of the colony. It is shown that of all bodies in the solar system other than Earth, Mars is unique in that it has the resources required to support a population of sufficient size to create locally a new branch of human civilization. Thus for each passenger a total of 1000 kg needs to be delivered to the cycler orbit, which with an Isp of 380 s for the CH4/O2 propulsion system on the transfer capsules translates into 3200 kg in LEO. direct employment of very large scale energy systems such as terrawatt sized fusion reactors, huge space-based reflectors or lasers, etc.) So it will be scientific crews and people who keep the infrastructure going. The economic viability of colonizing Mars has been extensively examined. This triangle trade, illustrated in Fig. On Mars, in contrast, the strong greenhouse effect created by such domes would be precisely what is necessary to produce a temperate climate inside. The outline of future interplanetary commerce thus becomes clear. It’s crazy and nobody likes it. While the initial exploration phase can be accomplished with small crews (of about 4 members each) operating out of Spartan base camps spread over bast areas of the Martian surface, the base building phase will require a division of labor entailing a larger number of people (on the order of 50), equipped with a wide variety of equipment and substantial sources of power. Introductory textbook from NASA. Therefore wages will be much higher on Mars than on Earth; while $320,000 might be 6 year's salary to an engineer on Earth, it would likely represent only 1 or 2 years' salary on Mars. While the Exploration and Base building phases can and probably must be carried out on the basis of outright government funding, during the Settlement phase economics comes to the fore. Economic drivers. It will take a quantum leap, however, when actual human expeditions to the planet's surface begin. This implies a still (much) greater ratio of payload to takeoff mass ratio from Mars to Ceres than from Earth because all the extra propellant requires massive tankage and larger caliber engines, all of which requires still more propellant, and therefore more tankage, etc. O'Neill, "The High Frontier," William Morrow and Co. New York, 1977. A fictional Mars tourism poster commissioned by SpaceX in 2015 . There have been speculations by Mars colonization enthusiasts, such as Walker and Zubrin that it may be possible for Mars colony to become profitable by exploiting vast domestic resources of deuterium, which can be used as fuel for fusion reactors. If economic exploitation of Antarctica, which is only a few hours away from "civilization", has water literally everywhere, and where the air is perfectly breathable is currently not viable, I can't imagine what it would take to make Mars, or mining asteroids, viable. Knappenberger, Clayton, "An Economic Analysis of Mars Exploration and Colonization" (2015). but despite the short sighted calculations of 18th Century European statesmen and financiers, the true value of America never was as a logistical support base for West Indies sugar and spice trade, inland fur trade, or as a potential market for manufactured goods. Thus plants grown in a thin walled greenhouse on the surface of the Moon or an asteroid would be killed by solar flares. Assuming, as appears to be the case, that a method of terraforming Mars could be found with a total cost much less than this, then those who own Mars would have every reason to seek to develop their property via planetary engineering. Both missions deliver 50 tonnes of cargo. In analogy to frontier America, social conditions on Mars will make it a pressure cooker for invention. One hundred entrants from around the world submitted proposals, which were eventually narrowed to 10 finalists who presented their proposals at the 22nd Annual Mars Society Convention in … Denver, CO 80201, USA In order to grow plants safely in such an environment, the walls of the greenhouse would have to be made of glass 10 cm thick, a construction requirement that would make the development of significant agricultural areas prohibitively expensive. During the period of their global ascendancy, the Spanish ignored North America; to them it was nothing but a vast amount of worthless wilderness. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): The economic viability of colonizing Mars is examined. If the launch vehicle used has a 1000 tonne liftoff mass, if would require 107 launches to assemble the CH4/O2 freighter mission if launched from Earth, but only 2 launches if the departure is from Mars. The present study focuses on the theory, economics, steps and possibilities of colonization of mars and moon in specific and other. R. Zubrin and C. McKay, "Technological Requirements for Terraforming Mars," AIAA 93-2005, AIAA/SAE 29th Joint Propulsion Conference, Monterey CA 1993. were available on Mars, they could potentially be transported back to Earth at high profit by using reusable Mars-surface based single stage to orbit vehicles to deliver the cargoes to Mars orbit, and then transporting them back to Earth using either cheap expendable chemical stages manufactured on Mars or reusable cycling solar sail powered interplanetary spacecraft. In order to understand the economics of Mars colonization it is necessary first to examine briefly the different phases of activity that will be necessary to transform the Red Planet. Thus eventually Earth to Mars transportation costs could be expected to drop another order of magnitude, to $30,000 per passenger or so. Put simply, if enough people find a way to live and prosper on Mars there is no doubt but that sooner or later they will terraform the planet. Now more than ever, your commitment makes a difference. There have been speculations by Mars colonization enthusiasts, such as Walker and Zubrin that it may be possible for Mars colony to become profitable by exploiting vast domestic resources of deuterium, which can be used as fuel for fusion reactors. Examining the graph, we see that with this level of effort (and the technology frozen at late 20th Century levels forever), the rate of human population growth of Mars in the 21st Century would be about 1/5th that experienced by colonial America in the 17th and 18th Centuries. The existence of such Martians precious metal ores, however, is still hypothetical. Carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen are only present on the Moon in parts per million quantities, much like gold in sea water. Robert Zubrin silver, germanium, hafnium, lanthanum, cerium, rhenium, samarium, gallium, gadolinium, gold, palladium, iridium, rubidium, platinum, rhodium, europium, etc.) As mentioned before, the labor shortage that will prevail on Mars will drive Martian civilization towards both technological and social advances. However, with a cost per launch of about $1 billion, the cost per immigrant would be $40 million. Colonization of Mars compared to North America. Pandemic could cause twice as much homelessness as the Great Recession. Colonizing Mars could be dangerous and ridiculously expensive. Take exploration from a scientific commercial exercise. For instance, one important problem with colonizing Mars is that it can be extremely expensive. Zahaan Bharmal. Nevertheless, it is my contention that the argument against the feasibility of Mars colonization is flawed by essentially the same false logic and lack of understanding of real economics that resulted in repeated absurd misevaluations of the value of colonial settlements (as opposed to trading posts, plantations, and other extractive activities) on the part of numerous European government ministries during the 400 years following Columbus. Now let us assume that starting in 2030 AD, an average of four such boosters are launched every year from Earth. A planet of refuge will be needed, and Mars will be there. 519-526, 2. Mars still has a 7-fold advantage in mass ratio over Earth as a port of departure for the Main Asteroid Belt, which translates into a payload to takeoff weight ratio nearly two orders of magnitude higher for Mars departure than for Earth. Once the techniques have been mastered that will allow the support of a large population on Mars out of indigenous resources, the settlement of Mars can begin. Moreover, on Mars, as on Earth, hydrologic and volcanic processes have occurred, which is likely to have concentrated various elements into local concentrations of high-grade mineral ore. By Clayton Knappenberger, Published on 01/01/15. For example use of air-breathing supersonic ramjet propulsion to perform a significant part of the Earth to orbit DV could cut orbit delivery costs by as much as a factor of 3. B. Cordell, "A Preliminary Assessment of Martian Natural Resource Potential," AAS 84-185, presented to the Case for Mars II conference, Boulder, CO, July 1984. It is shown, that of all bodies in the solar system other than Earth, Mars is unique in that it has the resources required to support a population of sufficient size to create locally a new branch of human civilization. The other way is trade. A similar triangle trade involving Britain, Australia, and the Spice Islands also supported British trade in the East Indies during the 19th Century. This process of rejuvenation, and not direct economic benefits via triangle-trade for main-belt asteroid mineral resources, will ultimately be the greatest benefit that the colonization of Mars will offer Earth, and it will be those terrestrial societies who have the closest social, cultural, linguistic, and economic links with the Martians who will benefit the most. This wage differential, precisely analogous to the wage differential between Europe and America during most of the past 4 centuries, will make emigration to Mars both desirable and possible for the individual. Moreover, also the Mars missions that have to be done before the colonization of Mars will be possible are quite costly as well. Musk himself has stated that, since the first journeys will be unsettlingly dangerous, the early candidates should be prepared to die. 2 we see one version of such a concept that could be used to transport immigrants to Mars. Regulation to "protect" what is will become ever more burdensome to those who would create what is not. Moreover the projected population growth rate, 1/5th that of Colonial America, while a bit slow, is significant on a historical scale, and assuming a cost of $1 billion per launch, the $4 billion per year program cost could be sustained for some time by any major power on Earth that cared to plant the seeds of its posterity on Mars. Under conditions of such large scale immigration, sale of real-estate will add a significant source of income to the planet's economy. It is also shown that while Mars may lack any cash material directly exportable to Earth, its orbital elements and … A Mars Colony Could Be Humanity's First Shot at a Ground-Up, Pure Economy. 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